Supported by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs    
Khirbet al-Batrawy
Season 2019
PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE 15TH SEASON (2019) OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND RESTORATIONS AT KHIRBET AL-BATRAWY BY ROME «LA SAPIENZA» UNIVERSITY

«URBAN ORIGINS IN THE WADI AZ-ZARQA: THE CASE OF KHIRBAT AL-BATRĀWĪ»


Lorenzo Nigro - Sapienza University of Rome

Abstract
The fifteenth season (2019) of archaeological excavations and restorations at Khirbet al-Batrawy was devoted to the continuation of the exploration of the northern fortifications (Area B North), displaced on four roughly parallel lines on the slope of the khirbat, with a special focus on the Main Inner City-Wall (MIW) at its easternmost stretch in the northern saddle which gives access to the site. Inside the Main Inner Wall, excavations continued in the area of the Early Bronze III "Palace of the Copper Axes" (Area B South), expanding the explored area of this building to the west in squares BkII5+BkII6 and exploring Room L.1340, which belong to a further wing of the Palace. Before reaching the room stratum, another portion of the multi-layered Early Bronze IV village has been also excavated, including dwellings and installations, marking the latest settlement of the mound of Batrawy in the 3rd millennium BC (fig. 1). In Area B North, a further stretch of 6 m of the Main Inner Wall and of the parallel Outer Wall has been brought to light, with a thickness north-south of about 12 m. This extension in squares BsII6+BtII6-7 has shown that the Outer Wall joined with the Main Inner Wall ending roughly at the limit of excavation where a huge limestone boulder emerges (figs. 2-3). These structures have been uncovered removing the EB IV embankment and excavating strata accumulated in between the Main Inner Wall and the Outer Wall. In the Outer Wall an interruption may be considered the gate across this fortification line. Batrawy multiple city-walls represents a unique summary of the city history, from its foundation at the eve of the 4th millennium BC, to its first destruction due to a tremendous earthquake towards 2700 BC, the following reconstruction of EB IIIA, then another destruction and final fire which destroyed the city around 2300 BC. Afterwards, during the last century of the 3rd millennium BC, a small rural village occupied the ruins of what had been a flourishing city. A cycle of destructions and reconstructions illustrating the main historical-archaeological periods of the site and which beautifully epitomize the early urbanization of Southern Levant (Nigro2013a).
The 15th season (2019) has, moreover, confirmed that the EB IV occupational strata were two. One earlier stage was again detected on top of the destruction layer on the palace. The site periodization can thus be summarized as follows: five major occupational periods have been distinguished on basis of comprehensive studies of stratigraphy, architecture, finds, and especially pottery seriation, as well as thanks to radiocarbon and other physicochemical analyses: Period Batrawy I (Early Bronze I, 3300-3000 BC); Period Batrawy II (Early Bronze II, 3000-2700 BC); Period Batrawy IIIA (Early Bronze IIIA, 2700-2500 BC); Period Batrawy IIIB (2500-2300 BC); and Period Batrawy IV (Early Bronze IVA-B, 2200-2000 BC). A gap of about a century (2300-2200 BC) apparently followed the final destruction of the EB II-III city. Finally, a very limited occupation is represented by a tower in use in the Late Iron Age (586-333 BC). This chronological timeline, firmly based upon stratigraphy, and the absence of successive archaeological or modern superimpositions, makes Batrawy a reference site for the Early Bronze Age in the whole Levant.

1. Introduction: the Fifteenth Season (2019) at Khirbet al-Batrawy
Archaeological investigations and restorations undertaken by Rome «La Sapienza» University Expedition to Jordan continued in October 2019 on the site of Khirbet al-Batrawy (Lat. 32° 05' 218"N, Long. 36° 04' 237"E), the Early Bronze Age II-III (3000-2300 BC) major fortified centre, and EB IVB (2200-2000BC) village, arisen upon a rocky hill dominating the ford through Wadi az-Zarqa. Archaeological investigations and restoration works were carried out under the aegis of the Department of Antiquities of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan between October 5th and 25th 2019. Archaeological investigation was focused on the continuation of the excavation on the northern slope of the site in Areas B North (at its easternmost limit) and B South (expanding both the western and the south-eastern edge of the site). In the upper layers of Area B South (Squares BkII5+BkII6), Early Bronze Age IV remains were excavated mainly consisting of dwellings and installations (§ 3.1). In the same area, the excavation was also focused on the west wing and Entrance Hall L.1100 of the "Palace of the Copper Axes" (§ 3.2), while at the south-eastern edge of the area another portion of the palace has been excavated in the SE corner of courtyard L.1046 (§ 3.3). In Area B North, the northern face of the Main Inner Wall was uncovered for a further stretch towards the east together with the parallel structure of the Outer Wall (§ 3.4).

1.1. Goals of the fifteenth season (2019) at Khirbet al-Batrawy
The main goal of the fifteenth season (2019) was the investigation of the area inside the Main Inner Wall (Area B South), expanding the excavation of the "Palace of the Copper Axes" towards west. The second goal of the season was the continuation of the excavation of the Main Inner Wall and the Outer Wall towards the east (fig. 4). The third goal of the season was the continuation of the excavation of the Early Bronze Age IV dwellings in the area inside the Main Inner Wall. These structures are connected to those already excavated in previous seasons (Nigro 2012, 189-214, pl. IV) and show the progressive transformation of the layout of the village arisen upon the ruins of the EB II-III city (fig. 5). As regards site valorization, during the 2019 season restoration works have been continued on the "Palace of the Copper Axes" with an overall repair of the ancient structure and a general cleaning (§ 4). The site is nowadays well protected by a fence, and almost entirely readable thanks to the restoration works on architecture.

2. Techniques and methodologies
Following the operational and technical standard already established in previous seasons (Nigro ed. 2012; Nigro 2010a; 2010b; 2012a; 2012b; 2012c; 2013a; 2013b; 2013c; 2014a; 2016a; 2016b), the excavation inside the MIW was continued by carefully digging it from the west to the east with a strictly stratigraphic method from top to down. Sections in Area B South were trimmed and regularized in order to document them with the ortho-photo technique, and an overall survey of the area was also obtained through photogrammetry. A huge amount of fallen down stones was removed from the site, after careful examination and documentation, excluding stones selected for being re-used in restoration works. No dump was left upon the site, as to allow an easier reading of archaeological features, in view of a future tourist valorization of Batrawy. Samples of soil and organic remains were collected and processed at the House of the Expedition in order to get chemico-physical information (fig. 6). Carbonized seeds and charcoals were taken for Carbon 14 determination. Stratigraphic sections, architectural sections and overlays were drawn on the spot and then by CAD. Excavated features underwent optical scanning, in order to obtain a 3D model of the multiple lines of fortification on the northern slope of the khirbat. Pottery is carefully examined by reading it and classifying fabrics and surface treatments. A distinguished series of analyses carried out in previous seasons (Nigro et al. 2013; 2016b) allow to better distinguish wares, productions and functions of vessels. Moreover, also pottery types were recorded by means of 3D optical devices. Sampling was extended to new finds also from EB IV strata.

3. Results of the Fifteenth Season (2019)
The fifteenth season (2019) was focused on the excavation inside the Main Inner Wall in the west wing of the "Palace of the Copper Axes" (Area B South, squares BkII5+6), and as well as on the opposite south-eastern corner of the Palace, in courtyard L.1046 (square BpII9), and in Area B North, along the Main Inner Wall at its easternmost excavated edge (squares BsII6+BtII6+7).

3.1. Area B South - the Early Bronze Age IV village
Excavations inside the Main Inner Wall were resumed in the fifteenth season (2019) in the area just west of the "Palace of the Copper Axes" (squares BkII5+BkII6) were two major occupational phases of EB IVB structures have been explored (Phase 2, Activities 2a-g: Nigro ed. 2012, 146, tab. 3.1). In the uppermost stages (Activities 2a-d), an extension of large dwelling unit (L.1302) excavated in 2018 was brought to light (BkII6) (fig. 7). Just south of the huge pit P.865 which cut through strata down to the Batrawy III layers, these structures were preserved with wall W.1341 east-west oriented delimitating a rectangular space (L.1344) closed to the south by wall W.1343. Against the northern face of this structure (only a foundation single line of stones is preserved) a round bin (S.1347) with an associated slab (B.1346) was uncovered. Three more slabs aside (S.1345) possibly also served together with these installations1. In the underlying stage (Activity e-g) the layout of the dwellings is more clear and all preserved walls have a double-line stone foundation (fig. 8). There is a main wall running for 6 m north-south (W.1349) with three more transversal structures east-west oriented (from the north to the south W.1353, W.1355, and the reuse of palace wall W.1245a). West of this structures there is a lane (L.1350) with a filling of use (F.1351)2. The northernmost unit is L.1352 with the layer of use F.13483, delimited by W.1353 and W.1355 and characterized by a 0.5 m long bench (B.1347), leaning on wall W.1349. Roughly in the middle of the room round slab B.1354 is possibly the base of a pillar or part of the roofing of a very interesting underground installation, S.1363, a cistern for collecting rainwaters sunk into the previous strata and lined with small rectangular stones (fig. 9). This cistern is oval shaped, with a main axis north-south 2.15 m long and the short one east-west of 1.2 m. It is 0.75 m deep and it is paved with slab. The walls of the cistern were carefully plastered and a closed inlet connected to a drain is visible in the norther side of the installation, with a large slab as capstone.4 In the southern most room, L.1358, with the layer of use F.13565, the south-western corner of the unit is occupied by a round silos (S.1359) with a presumed diameter of 1.5 m. To the east, however, this was cut by later stone rubbers' pit P.1361, the filling of which, basically consisting of stones, yielded Iron Age IIB-C sherds. Another interesting EB IVB unit was excavated at the opposite edge of the dig, in square BpII9 (fig. 10), where the prosecution of wall W.353 beyond the joint W.351 (already excavated in 2006 season, Nigro ed. 2008, 133), called W.953, encircled a circular silos (S.957), made of vertical slabs again with a small bench (B.956) on its western side. This installation was enclosed on the northern side by wall W.951, which had a small circular bin aside (S.955). The excavation of L.354 and of the underlying strata F.959 (Phase 2d), F.974 and F.978 (the latter belonging to the Batrawy III horizon), provided interesting materials6. South of W.353 there was a stone surface called L.960, belonging to the earlier phase of the Batrawy IVb village (Phase 2f) and devoted to the processing of liquid or semi-liquid stuff.

3.2. Area B South - the "Palace of the Copper Axes": Room L.1340.
Excavation in squares BkII5+BkII6 brought to light room L.1340. The floor in the Entrance Hall L.1100, L.1330, considerably raised towards the west (657.62 asl) in front of a door 0.85 m wide (L.1338). The north-eastern corner of the room was reconstructed on the basis of a small stretch of wall W.1333, on the same alignment of wall W.1323. Inside the corner a bench, W.1337, was added to wall W.873, which had been cut away by pit P.865. The southern limit of the room was not visible, as a later EB IV structure had cut through it: cistern S.1363. Moreover, the latter was leaning on an east-west wall (W.1335), which apparently had been built on top of an earlier wall (W.1365), visible in the SW corner of the sounding, which perhaps was the southern limit of room L.1340 (fig. 11). Along the main east-west axis of the room, two slabs set into the yellowish clay compacted floor, possibly were two pillar bases (B.1367 to the east, and B.1369 to the west). The impressive destruction layer (F.1334) inside room L.1340 was preserved only in the space between S.1363 and wall W.1323 and in the centre of the room, in front of the door. In the other parts of the room, EB IV overlaying strata and pit P.865 to the north had completely removed the room content. Where it was preserved, however, it was an impressive thick layer of destruction with charcoals, burnt ceilings, plaster, fragmentary bricks, and, especially pottery vessels of different shapes and dimensions, some of which (namely four hole-mouths jars) show black spots and stains deriving from the combustion of a liquid stuff, apparently olive oil7. This should have transformed the fire into a very dramatic and destructive conflagration.

At the end of the season the overall list of vases (50) found in the room, including the vessels retrieved in 2018 season, is the following (figs. 12-13):

- 6 pithoi (KB.18.B.1334/1, 6, 7; KB.19.B.1334/2, 5, 27)
- 9 hole-mouth jars (KB.18.B.1334/8; KB.19.B.1334/4, 7, 11, 18, 22, 24, 33, 36), and 4 bottoms (KB.19.B.1334/3, 12, 20, 26)
- 2 metallic jars (KB.18.B.1334/3; KB.19.B.1334/6)
- 10 Red Burnished jugs & juglets (KB.18.B.1334/4, 11; KB.19.B.1334/8, 10,14 pointed with double handle, 19, 28, 30, 35, 37)
- 5 Simple Ware jugs (KB.18.B.1334/10; KB.19.B.1334/16, 31), this includes 2 bottoms of jugs (KB.19.B.1334/15, 32), and 1 beaker (KB.18.B.1334/9)
- 1 Simple Ware jar with combed decoration (KB.19B.1334/38)
- 2 bowls (KB.18.B.1334/5 and KB.19.B.1334/9, the latter a Red Burnished bowl)
- 3 vats (KB.19.B.1334/17, 21, 29)
- 2 amphoriskoi (KB.18.B.1334/26 and KB.19.B.1334/23)
- 4 Miniature vessels (KB.19.B.1334/1, 13, 25, 34)
- 1 Ovoid squat vase (KB.18.B.1334/2)
Underneath wall W.1317, belonging to the earliest EB IV phase a copper arrowhead (KB.19.B.110) was found in the destruction layer F.1334.

3.3. Area B South - the "Palace of the Copper Axes": Courtyard L.1046.
The exploration of the "Palace of the Copper Axes" continued by resuming the excavation in the Eastern Pavilion, in square BpII9, where the corner of Courtyard L1046 was occupied by a round structure (W.969). It is suggested that the structures were diverging in order to follow the slope of the bedrock or that the corner between W.1289 and W.1187 was repaired after a collapse possibly due to an earthquake struck (fig. 14). On the inner western side, the corner was made with a round wall, while to the east W.1187 shows an offset (W.971) which to the south incorporates W.969. This suggests that in that point the bedrock had an inner subsiding due to the collapse of the roof of an underground cave. In the filling outside this wall a carnelian barrel shaped bead was found (KB.19.B.140), which shows working traces and even the beginning of a piercing on one top face. Courtyard was cleaned after restoration and the base for a small pillar was found 1.95 from wall W.391, suggesting that a porch preceded the entrance to room L.430.

3.4. Area B North - the excavation of the Main Inner Wall and the Outer Wall
In the fifteenth season (2019) the exploration of city fortification continued towards the east in squares Bs+tII6+7. Here a further stretch of the Main Inner Wall was unearthed, starting from the point where it slightly turns towards the north. Here it joins with the Outer Wall, which ends against its northern face. The MIW is preserved with big boulders set on the bedrock while the inner face of the Outer Wall has a counter-curtain made of relatively small stones, called W.1553. A gap was identified in the northern battering face of the Outer Wall in square BsII6, about 1.6 m wide, which is considered a gate across the wall and called Gate L.1550. The easternmost stretch of the Outer Wall which joins with the MIW is called W.1555 (fig. 15). It is preserved with a height of about 1 m, and as a varying width of 1.5-1.6 m. The filling in between the two wall was a destruction layer F.1554 with a few pottery sherds.

4. Site valorization
The Expedition is strongly committed in the site protection and valorization. All of the architectural structures uncovered in the previous seasons have undergone a careful restoration (Nigro 2013c), so that the EB II-III Broad-Room Temple in Area F (Nigro - Sala 2010, 238; Nigro 2013b, 192-195), the EB III "Palace of the Copper Axes" in Area B South, as well as the EB II City-Gate in Area B North (Nigro 2016b; 2012c; 2010b), are now fully restored. In this campaign (2019), restoration works were carried out on the Palace, envisaging after ten years from its first discovery and overall restoration and protection (fig. 16). Works were concentrated inside it in order to complete the rehabilitation and to set up draining devices through the walls. The final results is surely admirable.

5. Protection of the site
Further protection of the site, both from illegal looters and modern urban development of the surrounding city of Zarqa, was pursued thanks to the strong cooperation with the local office of the Department of Antiquities and the local inspector Mr. Aref Nahar Sabbah. The new iron fence with barbed wire encircling it on all sides of the khirbat represents a good protection from these threatens. With the establishment of an official guardian the site is protected by looters, however, building activities are developing very fast all around it and the facing hill of Beitrawy has been transformed into a new quarter of Zarqa Jedida.

6. Recommendations
The Expedition suggestion is to involve local authorities into the process for the site valorization and tourist exploitation. Batrawy is located not far from Route 36 and its junction with the new auto-route running into Wadi az-Zarqa. In the future, it may represent an easy stop for coaches carrying tourist group to Jerash (Nigro 2013a, p. 503). Moreover, the extraordinary finds from the "Palace of the Copper Axes" (Nigro 2010a; 2010b; 2012b; 2014c, 263-267; 2015), presently kept into the local DoA storeroom of Qasr Shebib (fig. 17), might be the nucleus of a local archaeological museum. Most noticeable finds (such as the four strings necklace [Nigro 2012b, 229-232; fig. 20], a fifth copper axe [Nigro - Sala 2012, 51], several beautiful vessels [Nigro 2010a; 2010b, 563-567), furthermore, may be set on display both in the new National Archaeological Museum and in the Jordan Museum in Amman. This can be also foreseen from the new finds of the 2018 and 2019 seasons.

7. Conclusions
The fifteenth season (2019) at Khirbet al-Batrawy contributed to a deeper and more detailed knowledge of this ancient city of Jordan, of its monumental defensive system, its inner layout, as well as of its history, economy and social organization also in the Early Bronze Age IV after the fall of the flourishing EB II-III city. A variety of data was gathered and processed in order to improve the historical reconstruction within a firmly based interpretation. During excavation and restoration activities, monuments and materials were carefully documented and restored. Archaeological material retrieved in the campaign are processed with classification and insertion of data in interactive databases, which collect all information on finds (from the typological ones to the spatial and stratigraphic ones); drawings, graphic and photographic documentation; restorations and systematic gathering of samples for analyses; reconstruction of the original archaeological contexts, also accomplished throughout chemical-physical analyses, in order to reconstruct the material conditions of life of the urban phase under examination, and to provide numerous indications on the economic conditions, the system of production, the strategies of survival and the social organization of the community (Nigro 2011, 64; 2014c, 262). The final aim of this work is the prompt publication of all data in preliminary reports (=Rome «La Sapienza» Studies on the Archaeology of Palestine & Transjordan 3, 6, 8), as already accomplished for previous seasons, as well as by means of fast publications of the discoveries and the web-site of the Expedition (www.lasapienzatojordan.it). The results of field activities and tourist valorisation of Rome "La Sapienza" Expedition to Khirbet al-Batrawy were divulgated in year 2015 with the publication of the volume ROSAPAT 10, devoted to Prof. Moawwiyah Ibrahim Festschrift, as well as with a series of articles in scientific journal (such as ADAJ, AJA, Scienze dell'Antichità, Syria, Vicino Oriente), and posters and papers presented to International Congresses. A wider presentation to the vast public, also finalized to the tourist exploitation, is available in the internet site of the Expedition (home page of the project: www.lasapienzatojordan.it). A further information is offered by the just appeared volume of ROSAPAT 12, L. Nigro - M. Nucciotti - E. Gallo, Precious Water. Paths of Jordanian Civilizations as seen in the Italian Archaeological Excavations. Proceedings of the International Conference held in Amman, October 18th 2016, Rome 2017.

8. References

L. NIGRO - M. NUCCIOTTI - E. GALLO, Precious Water. Paths of Jordanian Civilizations as seen in the Italian Archaeological Excavations. Proceedings of the International Conference held in Amman, October 18th 2016, (Rome «La Sapienza» Studies on the Archaeology of Palestine & Transjordan, 8),Rome 2017.

NIGRO 2016a = L. Nigro, Khirbat al-Batrawy.American Journal of Arcaheology 120:4 (2016): 645-646.

NIGRO 2016b = L. Nigro Khirbat al-Batrawi 2010-2013: The City Defenses and the Palace of Copper Axes.Studies on the History and Archaeology of Jordan XII: Transparent Borders (Department of Antiquities of Jordan), Amman 2016: 135-154.

NIGRO et al. 2016 = L. Nigro, The ceramic of the "Palace of the Copper Axes" (Khirbet al-Batrawy, Jordan): A palatial special production.Ceramics International 42 (2016): 5952-5962; co-authored with L. Medeghini, L. Fabrizi, C. De Vito, S. Mignardi, E. Gallo, C. Fiaccavento.

NIGRO 2015= L. Nigro, The Copper Axes Hoard in the Early Bronze IIIb Palace of Batrawy, Jordan, in K. ROSI?SKA-BALIK, A. OCHA?-CZARNOWICZ, M. CZARNOWICZ, J. D?BOWSKA-LUDWIN (eds.), Copper and Trade in the South-Eastern Mediterranean: Trade routes of the Near East in Antiquity (BAR IS2753), Oxford 2015: 77-83.

NIGRO 2014a=L. Nigro, Khirbat al-Batrawy, in G.J. CORBETT, D.R. KELLER, B.A. PORTER, CH.A. TUTTLE(eds.), Archaeology in Jordan, 2012 and 2013 Seasons, in American Journal of Archaeology 118 (2014): 644-645.

NIGRO 2014b= L. Nigro, The Copper Routes and the Egyptian Connection in 3rd millennium BC Jordan seen from the caravan city of Khirbet al-Batrawy.VicinoOriente XVIII (2014): 39-64.

NIGRO 2014c = L. Nigro, The King's Cup and the Bear Skin. Royal Ostentation in the Early Bronze III "Palace of the Copper Axes" at Khirbet al-Batrawy, in Z. KAFAFI - M. MARAQTEN (eds.), A Pioneer of Arabia. Studies in the Archaeology and Epigraphy of the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula in Honor of Moawiyah Ibrahim (ROSAPAT 10), Rome 2014: 261-270.

NIGRO 2013a= L. Nigro, Urban Origins in the Upper Wādīaz-Zarqā', Jordan: The City of Khirbat al-Batrāwī in the third Millennium BC, in F. AL-HMOUD (ed.), Studies on the History and Archaeology of Jordan XI(Department of Antiquities, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan), Amman 2013: 486-506.

NIGRO 2013b= L. Nigro, Khirbet al-Batrawy. An Early Bronze Age city at the fringes of the desert. Syria 90 (2013): 189-209.

NIGRO 2013c= L. Nigro, The City of the Copper Axes: Archaeological Research, Restoration and Training in the Early Bronze Age site of Khirbet al-Batrawy, Jordan, in B. CASSANI (ed.), Sapienza in the Mediterranean Region. Agreement on Cultural and Scientific Cooperation: Programs and Projects, Rome 2013: 113-115.

NIGRO - SALA 2013= L. Nigro, M. Sala, Preliminary Report of the Eighth Season (2012) of Excavations by the University of Rome "La Sapienza" at Khirbat al-Batrawi (Upper Wadiaz-Zarqa)". inHAWLIYYAT DA'IRAT AL-ATAR AL-'AMMAT 57 (2013): 217-228.

NIGRO et al. 2013 = L. Nigro, The key role of micro-Raman spectroscopy in the study of ancient pottery: the case of pre-classical Jordanian ceramics from the archaeological site of Khirbet al-Batrawy.European Journal of Mineralogy 25 (2013): 881-893; co-authored with L. Medeghini, S. Mignardi, C. De Vito, D. Bersani, P.P. Lottici, M. Turetta, J. Costantini, E. Bacchini, M. Sala,

NIGRO 2012a= L. Nigro, Khirbet al-Batrawy. American Journal of Archaeology 116/4 (2012): 705-706.

NIGRO 2012b= L. Nigro, An EB IIIB (2500-2300 BC) gemstones necklace from the Palace of the Copper Axes at Khirbet al-Batrawy, Jordan. VicinoOriente XVI (2012): 227-243.

NIGRO 2012c= L. Nigro, Khirbet al-Batrawy: Rise, Flourish and Collapse of an Early Bronze Age City in Jordan, in R. MATTHEWS - J. CURTIS (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. 12 April - 16 April 2010, the British Museum and UCL, London, Wiesbaden 2012, Volume 1: 609-628.

NIGRO ed. 2012= L. Nigro (ed.), Khirbet al-Batrawy III. The EB II-III triple fortification line and the EB IIIB quarter inside the city-wall. Preliminary report of the fourth (2008) and fifth (2009) seasons of excavations (Rome «La Sapienza» Studies on the Archaeology of Palestine & Transjordan, 8),Rome 2012.

NIGRO - SALA 2012= L. Nigro, M. Sala, Preliminary Report on the Seventh (2011) Season of Excavation by "La Sapienza" University of Rome at Khirbat al-Batrāwī (Upper Wādīaz-Zarqā'). ADAJ 56 (2012): 45-54. NIGRO 2011= L. Nigro, Dominating the River: Khirbet al-Batrawy, an EB II-III City in North-Central Jordan. Syria 88 (2011): 59-74.

NIGRO - SALA 2011= L. Nigro, M. Sala, Preliminary Report on the Sixth (2010) Season of Excavation by "La Sapienza" University of Rome at Khirbat al-Batrāwī (Upper Wādīaz-Zarqā'). ADAJ 55 (2011): 85-100.

NIGRO 2010 = L. Nigro, In the Palace of the Copper Axes/Nel Palazzo delleAsce di Rame. Khirbat al-Batrāwī: the discovery of a forgotten city of the III millennium BC in Jordan/Khirbat al-Batrāwī: la scoperta di una città dimenticata del III millennioa.C. inGiordania(Rome «La Sapienza» Studies on the Archaeology of Palestine & Transjordan, Colour Monographs I), Rome 2010.



Note

1 The finds related to these structures are: 2 flint blades (KB.19.B.35, 37) from S.1345; 3 flint blades (KB.19.B.28, 30, 34) and a flint debitage (KB.19.B.39) from S.1347; 2 flint blades (KB.19.B.33, 38) and a flint debitage (KB.19.B.31) from the layer of use F.1342 related to L.1344.
2 Finds from this layer are: 1 loom weight (KB.19.B.47), 2 flint debitages (KB.19.B.50, 51), 1 flint scraper (KB.19.B.55).
3 Finds from this layer are: 1 flint flake (KB.19.B.32), 2 flint blades (KB.19.B.40, 42)
4 Finds from cistern S.1363 are: 4 flint scrapers (KB.19.B.76, 79, 80, 84), 7 flint blades (KB.19.B.75, 77, 78, 81, 82, 83, 86), flint debitages (KB.19.B.85), 1 bone needle (KB.19.B.90).
5 Finds from this layer are: a grinder (KB.19.B.56), a goat astragalus (KB.19.B.58)
6 Two Canaanean blades (KB.19.B.92, 93), two flint blades (KB.19.B.98, 103), three flint scrapers (KB.19.B.101, 119, 128), flint debitage (KB.19.B.111), two spindle whorls (KB.19.B.131, 132), two bone needles (KB.19.B.135, 142), two bone awls (KB.19.B.134, 135), a slicker (KB.19.B.100), a pestel (KB.19.B.112), a limestone mortar (KB.19.B.113), a grinding stone (KB.19.B.138).
7 A sample from this oil stain was taken (KB.19.B.1334/sample 32).